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C.R.A.A.P test. How to evaluate a resource for quality

C.R.A.A.P Test

Evaluating Research Sources


Is the information recent enough for your topic?

  • Has it been published or updated in the last x years? (x will vary, depending on your topic)
  • If you have a historical topic, was it published around the date of the original event?
  • If it’s a website, are the links working?


Where does the information come from and does it fit your topic?

  • Are you able to read and understand the information?
  • Does it answer your research question?
  • Is it a primary or secondary source (what source works best for your topic)?


Who is the author or publisher of this information?

  • Can this person or company be contacted?
  • Is there an “About Us” link so you can find out more about the author/publisher?
  • Are they an expert?
  • Can you Google the author or publisher and find out more about them?


Does the information seem accurate based on what you already know?

  • Is the information supported by evidence?
  • Can you verify the information by using another reliable source?
  • Are there spelling, grammatical or other typographical errors?


What is the intent of the author?

  • Who is the information written for--young children, students, professors, doctors...?
  • Is the information meant to inform, persuade, sell, entertain...?
  • Is the author trying to make money from this information?
  • Are there obvious biases?